Bladder – stones, tumours, congenital disorders, incontinence in women and men and erectile dysfunction.
Male reproductive organs – impotence, tumours, congenital disorders, infection, sterilization and male infertility.
Urethra and prostate – tumours, obstructions and infections.
Urology was the first surgical specialty to use minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopy and key-hole surgery, techniques which continue to be regularly used by urologists. Urology is also at the forefront of developments in robot-assisted surgery. Urologists use a thin lighted instrument known as a cystoscope to examine the bladder and urethra.